Comparing the use of Robert Marzano’s model of instructional strategies in the Pakistani context




Marzano’s Model, Establish Goals and Student Progress


This study examined and compared Robert Marzano’s model of instructional strategies in public and private schools in Pakistan. Instructional strategies involve various activities teachers perform while teaching. The study used a causal-comparative research design and a questionnaire was developed by the researchers to measure teachers’ perceptions about their use of Marzano’s instructional strategies. The convenience sampling technique was used and 300 primary school teachers (150 from public and 150 from private schools) in district Okara were selected. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS. The study revealed that there were no significant differences between public and private school teachers and male and female schoolteachers’ perceptions of using Marzano’s model of instructional strategies. The study also revealed that there was a significant difference between the teachers having different academic qualifications, and MA/MSC/MPhil teachers were found better than BA/BSC teachers in using these instructional strategies. The study further showed that there was a significant difference between teachers having different professional qualifications, and MED/MA Education teachers were found better than B. ED teachers. A significant difference was found between teachers’ perceptions of having different years of experience with more experienced teachers showing higher scores as compared to less experienced teachers. Recommendations have also been given in the end.


Ali, M. A. (2000). Supervision for teacher development: an alternative model for Pakistan. International Journal of Educational Development, 20(3), 177-188.

Ahmad, I., Rauf, M., Zeb, A., Rehman, S., Khan, W., Rashid, A., & Ali, F. (2012). Teachers’ perceptions of classroom management, problems, and its solutions: Case of government secondary schools in Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(24), 173-181.

Anderman, E. M., & Patrick, H. (2012). Achievement goal theory, conceptualization of ability/intelligence, and classroom climate. In S. Christenson, A. Reschly, & C. Wylie (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Student Engagement (pp. 173-191). New York, NY: Springer.

Anderson, J. R., Corbett, A. T., Koedinger, K. R., & Pelletier, R. (1995). Cognitive tutors: Lessons learned. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4(2), 167-207.

Aquino-Sterling, C. R. (2016). Responding to the call: Developing and assessing pedagogical Spanish competencies in bilingual teacher education. Bilingual Research Journal, 39(1), 50-68.

Assor, A., Kaplan, H., & Roth, G. (2002). Choice is good, but relevance is excellent: Autonomy-enhancing and suppressing teacher behaviors predicting students' engagement in schoolwork. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(2), 261-278.

Brophy, J. (2005). Goal theorists should move on from performance goals. Educational psychologist, 40(3), 167-176.

Chamot, A. U. (2004). Issues in language learning strategy research and instructional. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Instructional, 1(1), 14-26.

Cherniss, A. (2008). Standards based report card: Teachers' perception on the development, transition, and implementation (Doctoral dissertation, University of Southern California).

Colvin, G., Kameenui, E. J., & Sugai, G. (1993). Reconceptualizing behavior management and school-wide discipline in general education. Education and Treatment of Children, 16(4), 361-381.

Dyer, J. E., & Osborne, E. W. (1995). Participation in supervised agricultural experience programs: A synthesis of research. Journal of Agricultural Education, 36(1), 6-14.

Edmunds, B., & Hartnett, M. (2014). Using a learning management system to personalize learning for primary school students. Journal of Open, Flexible and Distance Learning, 18(1), 11-29.

Evertson, C. M., & Weinstein, C. S. (2006). Classroom management as a field of inquiry. Handbook of classroom management: Research, practice, and contemporary issues. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.

Fredricks, J. A. (2014). Eight myths of student disengagement: Creating classrooms of deep learning. Los Angeles: Corwin.

Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. H. (2004). School engagement: Potential of the concept, state of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59-109.

Gillies, R. M., & Ashman, A. F. (1998). Behavior and interactions of children in cooperative groups in lower and middle elementary grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(4), 746-757.

Good, D. (2000). Individuals, interpersonal relations, and trust. In D. Gambetta (Ed.), Trust: Making and breaking cooperative relations (pp.31-48). New York: Blackwell.

Gregory, A., & Weinstein, R. S. (2004). Connection and regulation at home and in school: Predicting growth in achievement for adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 19(4), 405-427.

Guskey, T. R. (2001). Helping standards make the grade. Educational Leadership, 59(1), 23-45.

Haptonstall, K. G. (2010). An analysis of the correlation between standards-based, non-standards-based grading systems and achievement as measured by the Colorado Student Assessment Program (CSAP). Capella University.

Hattie, J., & Timperley, H. (2007). The power of feedback. Review of educational research, 77(1), 81-112.

Hester, J. T. (2013). Kids between nations: Ethnic classes in the construction of Korean identities in Japanese public schools. In Koreans in Japan (pp. 175-196). Routledge.

Hossain, D., Gorman, D., Williams-Mozely, J., & Garvey, D. (2008). Bridging the gap: Identifying needs and aspirations of Indigenous students to facilitate their entry into university. The Australian Journal of Indigenous Education, 37(1), 9-17.

Jones, J. M. (2014). Discussion group effectiveness is related to critical thinking through interest and engagement. Psychology Learning & Instructional, 13(1), 12-24.

Jones, M. G., & Vesilind, E. (1995). Preservice teachers' cognitive frameworks for class management. Instructional and Teacher Education, 11(4), 313-330.

Kizlik, B. (2009). Classroom management and management of student conduct. University of Phoenix ADPRIMA.

LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading. Cognitive psychology, 6(2), 293-323.

Lewis, T. J., & Sugai, G. (1999). Effective behavior support: Systems approach to proactive schoolwide management. Focus on Exceptional Children, 31(6), 1-24.

Linnenbrink, E. A & Pintrich, P. R. (2003). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in student engagement and learning in the classroom. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19(2), 119-137.

Lord Nelson, L. G., Summers, J. A., & Turnbull, A. P. (2004). Boundaries in family—professional relationships: Implications for special education. Remedial and Special Education, 25(3), 153-165.

Marzano, R. J. (2007).The art and science of instructional: A Comprehensive framework of effective instruction. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, R. J. (2012).The two purposes of teacher evaluation. Educational Leadership, 70(3), 14-19.

Marzano, R. J., Pickering, D. J., Pollock J. E. (2001). Classroom instruction that work: Research-based strategies for increasing student achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, R.L (2009). When student track their progress. Educational Leadership 67(4), 86-87. Retrieved from:

Meyers, C., & Jones, T. B. (1993). Promoting Active Learning. Strategies for the College Classroom. Jossey-Bass Inc., Publishers, 350 Sansome Street, San Francisco, CA 94104.

Middleton, M. J., & Midgley, C. (2002). Beyond motivation: Middle school students' perceptions of press for understanding in math. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(3), 373-391.

Noels, K. A., Clement, R., & Pelletier, L. G. (1999). Perceptions of teachers' communicative style and students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The Modern Language Journal, 83(1), 23-34.

Odera, F. Y. (2011). Motivation: The most ignored factor in classroom instruction in Kenyan secondary schools. International Journal of Science and Technology, 1(6), 283-288.

Owen, S. (2003), School-based professional development-building morale, professionalism, and productive teacher learning practices. Journal of Education Enquiry, 4(2), 102-112.

Pittaway, L., & Edwards, C. (2012). Assessment: examining practice in entrepreneurship education. Education+ Training, 54(8/9), 778-800.

Reys, R., Reys, B., Lapan, R., Holiday, G., & Wasman, D. (2003). Assessing the impact of standards-based middle grades mathematics curriculum materials on student achievement. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 34(1), 74-95.

Schunk, D. H., & Mullen, C. A. (2012). Self-efficacy as an engaged learner. In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 219-235). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Tahir, A., & Qadir, S. A. (2012). Challenges of classroom management to effective teacher socialization: A study of beginning English teachers. Pakistan journal of social sciences, 32(1), 21-37.

Walker, H. M., Shinn, M. R., O'Neill, R. E., & Ramsey, E. (1987). A longitudinal assessment of the development of antisocial behavior in boys: Rationale, methodology, and first-year results. Remedial and Special Education, 8(4), 7-27.

Walsh, J. A., & Sattes, B. D. (2000). Inside School Improvement: Creating High-Performing Learning Communities. Scarecrow Education, Attn: Sales Department, 15200 NBN Way, PO Box 191, Blue Ridge Summit, PA 17214.

Weinstein, R. S. (2002). Reaching higher: The power of expectations in schooling. Harvard University Press.

Wentzel, K. R. (2009). Students’ relationships with teachers as motivational contexts. In K. R. Wentzel & A. Wigfield (Ed.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp.301, 322). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Whittington, M. S., & Newcomb, L. H. (1992). Raising cognitive levels of college classroom instruction. NACTA Journal, 36(2), 8-11.




How to Cite

Akram, M., & Malik, M. I. (2023). Comparing the use of Robert Marzano’s model of instructional strategies in the Pakistani context. Journal of Teacher Development and Education, 1(1), 51–63.